Mauritania belongs to African Sahel region which has been affected by recurrent droughts since 1968. The resulting desertification, combined with human activities, has led to dire consequences on an already very precarious environment, namely the degradation of the general socio-economic conditions of the country and of the physical environment. The country's vulnerability to climate change therefore affects all vital sectors of the national economy. The impacts of climate change on water resources will be significant and will result in a general decrease in water resources of the order of 10 to 15%. With the increase in the level of the ocean, on the one hand, and taking into account the topography of the coast, on the other hand, the coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to the risks of marine incursions and floods as well as to extreme climatic events. In response to the recurrent disasters that result from this situation, the Government of Mauritania regularly devotes part of its budget to special programs to help vulnerable populations affected by droughts.