The vulnerability of Egypt's water resources to climate change depends on Nile flows, rainfall, and ground water. 12% to 15% of the most fertile arable land in Nile Delta is negatively affected by sea level rise and salt water intrusion. In terms of livestock production, current evidence shows that temperature rise leads to harmful heat stress, which negatively impacts livestock productivity. Climate change is expected to increase seawater temperature, shifting fish distributions northwards to live in deeper waters. In addition, increased water salinity in the coastal lakes in Egypt is expected to negatively affect fish species. Coastal zones are expected to suffer from climate change direct impacts. As for the tourism sector, coral reefs which constitute a major attraction in Red Sea resorts are highly vulnerable to climate change. In addition, one of the most significant potential negative impacts of climate change is the harm inflicted on national heritage as result of temperature rise, sandy winds and ground water.
The Egyptian environment is influenced by many national, regional, and global factors. National factors include, but are not limited to, the following: population growth, economic instability and national objectives and priorities.